There are two separate court systems in the United States, and they are the federal and the state. Given that the Constitution has developed federalism, federal government powers shared between the federal government and state governments. The law grants explicitly specific powers to the federal government. Authorities not designated to the federal government is up to the individual state federal government. Each state makes its laws, and those laws apply only to that specific state. Nevertheless, laws enacted by state government need not breach the Constitution.
Some states have courts with limited jurisdiction. A single judge administers these courts, and they hear civil and criminal cases. All states have necessary jurisdiction trial courts that are governed by a single judge. These high courts are called circuit courts, and they hear essential civil and criminal cases. Some states have special courts and referred to as state supreme court that acts as an appellate court. The majority of states have an intermediate appellate court that hears an appeal from the high court.
State courts translate and choose matters of their specific state constitution. The state court system varies from one state to another. Each state court system has its distinct functions, but some general purposes discovered in all state courts. Nevertheless, all state court system has the same basic levels.
The trial court is the general workhorse of a state court system. In the structure of the state court system, trial courts rank as the lowest level court; however, this is where a case or a suit is filed, heard, and decided. A lot of trial courts have general jurisdiction. Some of the courts have exclusive or limited authority, such as a family court, juvenile court, probate court, or traffic court.
There are states where courts are designated to manage “small claims.” In other countries, such claims handled in individual departments of the general trial courts. It also applies to probate and juvenile courts. People might broadly call a court a juvenile court or a small claims court, but really, they are talking about a juvenile or small claims department of the necessary circuit court.
State Court System vary from one state to another. However, all state courts operate on many levels that are distinguished by the kind of the matter of the case heard or the quantity of money at stake.